As technologically intensive companies enter the A&D sector, how must incumbents ramp up R&D? How can an innovation economy be nurtured? Where can aerospace organisations most effectively invest in R&D and how do these programmes align with national development strategies? Is it more effective to fund R&D directly or buy it in from startups? How can we capture and harness fresh perspectives from disruptors, tech evangelists and new entrants to the aerospace sector? In a risk averse industry how can organisations evolve to enable risk taking, frontier science and development?